The name of Acropolis Monument originates from greek akro which means highest point and polis which means city. More specifically ancient Greeks built Acropolis on a rocky hill. In addition the general and also statesman of the city of Athens Pericles hired great architects to built it. Therefore he hired Kallikrates, Iktinos and the sculptor Phidias. In particular Phidias sculptured the gold statue of Athena. Impressively the statue stood in the Parthenon Acropolis Athens near the smaller temple of Athena. Initially there was already a built on the hill. Unfortunately Persians ruined the temple of Athena in 480 BCE. After the defeat of Persians at the battle of Salamis (480 BCE) started the new construction of the monument.
Moreover the periclean monument declared theglory of Athens to the world. Also it gave honour to the goddess of Athena, who was the patron of the city. Additionally the buildings that are visible today are the Parthenon and the Propylaea. Moreover visible are the Erechtheion Acropolis Athens and the temple of Athena Nike Acropolis Athens.
Acropolis Monument : Cultural activities
In antiquity every four years took place the festival of Panathenaia in Athens. More specifically a procession traveled from the Panathenaic way and ended to the Acropolis. During the festival's activities, ancient Greek customs arised. Such customs were the decoration of goddess Athena. Ancient Greek used to dress either the statue of Athena Polias or the statue of Athena Parthenos. In particular ancient Athenians dressed those statues with a robe of woven wool (peplos).
Changes to the Acropolis
Unfortunately Acropolis suffered from human intervention. After the rise of Christianity, the Parthenon and the Erechtheion became churches. Furthermore the temple of Athena Nike became a chapel and the Propylaia an episcopal residence. Afterwards in the epoche under the Frankish rule Acropolis became a residence. Then during the Turkish occupation Acropolis became a Muslim worship center. In addition Parthenon became a mosque.
Parthenon used to be the garrison of Turks’ headquarters. It was bombarded when Venetians and Morozini shoot to dislodge Turks from Greece. After the Turkish approval, Lord Elgin looted historical parts of Acropolis. In Particular he damaged the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon, the temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheion. Moreover the British Museum houses the stolen exhibits since 1816. In 1975, a restoration plan began which is still in progress.